   Oil Industry Conversion Charts & Calculator: Crude petroleum, and the refined products made from crude oil, are normally measured either by volume in gallons and US barrels, or by weight in tons or tonnes.  The relationship between volume and weight is usually measured by density in the United Kingdom (the alternative measure is relative density or specific gravity). American oilmen usually reckon quantities of oil produced, moved or processed in barrels per day (bpd or b/d). The loose but simple rule of thumb for conversion is that a barrel a day is roughly 50 tonnes a year, but the relationship varies according to density and so according to product.      * Natural gas is converted to barrels of oil equivalent using a ratio of 5,487 cubic feet of natural gas per one barrel of crude oil. This ratio is based on the actual average equivalent energy content of TOTAL's natural gas reserves. ```1 barrel of crude oil per day = appr. 50 tons of crude oil per year 1 ton of crude oil = 1 metric ton of crude oil = appr. 7.3 barrels of crude oil (assuming a specific gravity of 33 API) = 6.6-8.0 bbl. of crude oil with 7.333 bbl. taken as average = 1.16 kl. of crude oil (average) 1 ton of oil equivalent = appr. 1,125 cubic meters of natural gas MMSCF Million standard cubic feet CST Centi-Stroke A. American E. English VOLUME 1 American barrel = 158.984 liters = 42 American (US) gallons = 34.9726 Imperial (UK) gallons = 5.6146 cubic feet = 0.15899 cubic metre = 3.78541 cubic decimeters (dm3) = 0.136 tonne (approx) 1 American gallon = 231 cubic inches = 0.133681 cubic foot = 3.7854 liters = 0.0238095 American barrel = 0.83268 Imperial gallon = 0.0037854 cubic meter 1 Imperial gallon = 277.42 cubic inches = 1.20094 American gallons = 4.54609 liters = 0.028594 American barrel = 0.160544 cubic foot = 0.004561 cubic meter 1 liter = 1,000 cubic centimeters = 1 cubic decimeter (dm3) = 0.035314 cubic foot = 61.024 cubic inches = 1.7597 pints = 0.219969 Imperial gallon = 0.26417 American gallon 1 kiloliter = 1,000 cubic decimeters (dm3) = 6.28981 American barrels 1 gross ton = 100 cubic feet or 2.83 cubic metres of (shipping) permanently enclosed space 1 cubic meter = 35.315 cubic feet = 219.97 Imperial gallons = 1,000 liters = 6.2898 American barrels = 264.17 American gallons WEIGHT 1 oz. = 28.35 grams 1 lb. = 0.453592 kilograms = 0.009 cwt. 1 kg. = 2.20462 lb. = 0.01 quintal 1 cwt = 112 lb. = 50.802 kg. 1 metric ton = 0.98421 long ton or English ton = 1.10231 short ton = 2,204.6 lb 1 English ton = 1.01605 metric tons or long ton = 1.12 short tons 1 short ton = 0.907186 metric ton = 0.892857 long ton = 2,000 lb. * These conversions are based on the assumption that all weights are weights in air, which is the correct basis for computing bulk commercial quantities of petroleum. PRICE 1 US cent/AG = 0.42 US\$/BBL 1 US\$/BBL = 0.163 Baht/Liters (Based on exchange rate of 25.9 Baht/US\$) PETROLEUM SPECIFIC GRAVITY VOLUME PER TON ---------------------------------------------- Degree Specific Barrels * Long tonne API gravity per metric tonne ---------------------------------------------- 25 0.904 6.98 7.09 26 0.898 7.02 7.13 27 0.893 7.06 7.18 28 0.887 7.10 7.22 29 0.882 7.15 7.27 30 0.876 7.19 7.31 31 0.871 7.24 7.36 32 0.865 7.28 7.40 33 0.860 7.33 7.45 34 0.855 7.37 7.49 35 0.850 7.42 7.54 36 0.845 7.46 7.58 37 0.840 7.51 7.63 38 0.835 7.55 7.67 39 0.830 7.60 7.72 40 0.825 7.64 7.76 41 0.820 7.69 7.81 42 0.816 7.73 7.85 ---------------------------------------------- * Approx. figures 60°F 141.5 Specific gravity = ------------ 131.5 + °API POWER AND HEAT UNITS 1 HP (UK Horsepower) = 550 foot pounds per second = 0.7457 kilowatt = 1.014 PS (or Cheval Vapeur) 1 PS (Pferdestaerke) = 542 foot pounds per second or CV (Cheval Vapeur) = 0.986 hp = 0.736 kW 1 kW (Kilowatt) = 1,000 watts = 1,340 hp = 1.359 PS or CV = 737 foot pounds per second 1 foot pound per second = 0.00136 kilowatt = 0.00182 hp = 0.00184 PS or CV 1000 Btu = 0.293 kWh 100,000 Btu = 1 therm 1 calorie (dieticians') = 4.1855 kilojoules 1 Therm = 100,000 Btu (British Thermal Units) = 25,200 kilocalories = 25.2 thermies = 29.3 kilowatt hours 1000 kilocalories = 3,968 Btu (Large Calories) = 1.163 kilowatt hours = 1 thermie 1 kilowatt hour = 3,411 Btu = 1.340 hp hours = 859.6 kilocalories LIQUEFIED METHANE 1 Ton of Liquefied = approximately 16 barrels Methane = approximately 50,000 cubic feet (1400 cubic meters) of natural gas, depending on methane content PRODUCT SPECIFIC GRAVITY RANGES --------------------------------------------------- Spec. Barrels per Gravity metric ton --------------------------------------------------- Crude oils 0.80-0.97 8.0-6.6 Aviation gasolines 0.70-0.78 9.1-8.2 Motor gasolines 0.71-0.79 9.0-8.1 Kerosines 0.78-0.84 8.2-7.6 Gas oils 0.82-0.90 7.8-7.1 Diesel oils 0.82-0.92 7.8-6.9 Lubricating oils 0.85-0.95 7.5-6.7 Fuel oils 0.92-0.99 6.9-6.5 Asphaltic bitumens 1.00-1.10 6.4-5.8 --------------------------------------------------- CALORIFIC VALUE OF FULES Rough gross values in Btu per lb ------------------------------------- Crude oils 18,300-19,500 Gasolines 20,500 Kerosines 19,800 Benzole 18,100 Ethyl alcohol 11,600 Gas oils 19,200 Fuel oils (bunker) 18,300 Coal (bituminous) 10,200-14,600 LNG 22,300 LPG (butane) 21,300 ------------------------------------- TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF EXPORT STREAMS ---------------------------------------- MIRI Bintulu Labuan ---------------------------------------- API Gravity 33° 35° 32° Pour Point 45°F 15°F 45°F Wt. % Sulphur 0.07 0.1 0.07 ---------------------------------------- PRESSURE 1 Bar = 0.987 atmospheres = 750.1 mm Hg = 14.50 pound/sq inch = 1.020 kg force/sq cm 1 kg force/sq cm = 14.22 pounds/sq inch 1 pound/sq inch = 0.070 kg force/sq inch HEAT AND ENERGY 1 megajoule = 238.8 kilocalories = 947.8 British Thermal Units = 0.278 kilowatt hours 1 terajoule = 0.00002388 Mtoe 1 kilocalorie = 3.968 Btu = 4186 joules = 1.163 x 10-3 kWh 1 kilowatt hour = 859.8 kilocalories = 3412 Btu 1 million Btu = 1055 megajoule = 2520 megacalories = 293.1 kilowatt hours 1 ton of oil equivalent = 10000000 kilocalories (toe) = 41.868 gigajoules = 40.047 x 106 BTU = 42.244 GJ INTERFUEL CONVERSION FACTOR Whilst individual crudes, coals and gases vary widely in quality, certain standard qualities are often assumed for statistical purposes: ----------------------------------------------------------------- Reference Barrel Oil Ton Oil Ton Coal 1,000 Cubic Fuel Equivalent Equivalent Equivalent Feet Natural Gas ----------------------------------------------------------------- Calorific 5.8x106 43x106 7x106 1x106 Value Btu gross Btu gross Kcal net Btu gross Conversion 1 0.14 0.21 5.8 Factors 7.41 1 1.57 43.0 4.71 0.64 1 27.3 0.17 0.02 0.04 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------- Based on these qualities, the following equivalent rates of consumption can be used with reasonable accuracy: ----------------------------------------------------------------- LNG NG OIL OIL COAL t/y 106 mmcF/d toe/y boe/y tce/y 109 Nm3/y ----------------------------------------------------------------- 1 1.41 1.22 25 1.9 0.71 1 0.87 18 39 0.82 1.15 1 20 1.55 0.04 0.056 0.049 1 0.076 0.53 0.74 0.64 13 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------- CALORIFIC VALUE 1 magajoule/cu m = 25.84 Btu/cu ft 1 megajoule per normal = 25.368 BTU per standard cubic feet cubic meter (BTU/SCF) = 2.388 x 102 kilocalorie per normal cubic meter (kcal/Nm3) 1 kilocalorie/cu m = 0.016 Btu/cu ft 1 megajoule/kg = 429.9 Btu/pound 1 kilocalorie = 1.8 Btu/pound (exact) 1 Btu/cu ft = 37.38 kilojoules/cu m = 9.410 kilocalories/cu m 1 Btu/pound = 2.326 kilojoules/kg = 0.556 kilocalories/kg ENERGY VALUES Btu per lb: wood: green 4,400 dry 7,310 peat, sod 6,200 lignite 9,000 coke 12,100 coal: bituminous 13,000 anthracite 14,500 oil: fuel 18,500 gas 19,500 ============================================================================== NATURAL GAS AND OTHER ENERGY EQUIVALENTS The following are quick-reference equivalents. All figures are APROXIMATE VALUES only for use where precision is not required. They are based on: (i) for natural gas: 1,000 Btu/ft3 = 9,500 kcal/m3 (Groningen gas 8,400 kcal/m3) (ii) for LPG: an assumed 50/50 propane/butane mixture with (r) or (p) indicating that the LPG is either refrigerated or pressurised. (iii) calorific values, MMBtu (gross): per tonne - LNG 51.8; LPG 47.3; oil 42.3; coal 27.3 per barrel - LNG 3.8; LPG (r) 4.45; LPG (p) 4.1; oil 5.8 per cubic metre - LNG 23.8; LPG (r) 28; LPG (p) 25.8 Natural Gas: Cubic Metre Equivalents ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1 mrd m3 Natural Gas per Year per year = 0.04 Tcf gas (38 trillion Btu) = 890 000 tonnes oil = 800 000 tonnes LPG = 725 000 tonnes LNG = 1.4 million tonnes coal per day = 100 million ft3 gas = 17 800 barrels oil = 23 200 barrels LPG (r) = 25 200 barrels LPG (p) = 27 200 barrels LNG 1 million m3 Natural Gas per Day per year = 0.014 Tcf gas (14 trillion Btu) = 325 000 tonnes oil = 290 000 tonnes LPG = 265 000 tonnes LNG = 500 000 tonnes coal per day = 37 million ft3 gas = 6 500 barrels oil = 8 500 barrels LPG (r) = 9 200 barrels LPG (p) = 9 900 barrels LNG 1 m3 Groningen gas = 0.88 m3 (9 500 kcal) 1 m3 (9 500 kcal) = 1.13 m3 Groningen gas Natural Gas: Cubic Foot Equivalents ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 Tcf Natural Gas per Year per year = 27 mrd m3 gas (30 mrd Groningen) = 24 million tonnes oil = 37 million tonnes coal per day = 2 700 million ft3 gas = 470 000 barrels oil 100 MMcf Natural Gas per Day per year = 0.04 Tcf (37 trillion Btu) = 1 mrd m3 gas (1.1 mrd Groningen) = 860 000 tonnes oil = 770 000 tonnes LPG = 700 000 tonnes LNG = 1.35 million tonnes coal per day = 2.7 million m3 gas (3 million Groningen) = 17 250 barrels oil = 22 500 barrels LPG (r) = 24 400 barrels LPG (p) = 26 300 barrels LNG LNG: Volumetric Equivalents ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 million tonnes LNG per Year per year = 77 million ft3 (liquid) = 2.2 million m3 (liquid) = 14 million barrels (liquid) = 0.05 Tcf (gas) = 1.4 mrd m3 (gas) = 1.1 million tonnes LPG = 1.2 million tonnes oil = 52 trillion Btu = 1.9 million tonnes coal per day = 140 million ft3 (gas) = 4 million m3 (gas) = 37 500 barrels LNG = 31 900 barrels LPG (r) = 34 600 barrels LPG (p) = 24 500 barrels oil 1 million m3 LNG per Year per year = 460 000 tonnes LNG = 6.3 million barrels LNG = 0.2 Tcf (gas) = 0.6 mrd m3 (gas) = 500 000 tonnes oil = 560 000 tonnes oil = 24 trillion Btu = 870 000 tonnes coal per day = 65 million ft3 gas = 14 700 barrels LPG (r) = 15 900 barrels LPG (p) = 17 200 barrels LNG = 11 200 barrels oil m3 = kilolitre LPG & Ethane: Weight, Volume, Heat Conversions ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Barrels Per Tonne Ethane Propane n-Butane C3/C4 mix Pressured 17.6 12.4 10.8 11.6 Refrigerated 11.5 10.8 10.4 10.6 Cubic Metres Per Tonne Ethane Propane n-Butane C3/C4 mix Pressured 2.80 1.97 1.71 1.84 Refrigerated 1.83 1.72 1.66 1.69 106 Btu Per Barrel Ethane Propane n-Butane C3/C4 mix Pressured 2.79 3.85 4.35 4.10 Refrigerated 4.27 4.41 4.49 4.45 106 Btu Per Cubic Metre Ethane Propane n-Butane C3/C4 mix Pressured 17.6 24.2 27.4 25.8 Refrigerated 26.9 27.7 28.3 28.0 106 Btu Per Tonne Ethane Propane n-Butane C3/C4 mix Pressured } 49.2 47.7 46.9 47.3 Refrigerated } 1 Barrel/Day = Tonnes Per Annum Ethane Propane n-Butane C3/C4 mix Pressured 20.7 29.4 33.8 31.6 Refrigerated 31.7 33.8 35.0 34.4 Natural Gas: Inter-Fuel Price Equivalents (US Currency) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ONE CENT per MMBtu = 5.8 Cents per Barrel crude oil = 6.4 Cents per Barrel fuel oil = 5.2 Cents per Barrel naphtha = 4.5 Cents per Barrel LPG (r) = 4.1 Cents per Barrel LPG (P) = 3.8 Cents per Barrel LNG ONE CENT per MMBtu = 0.42 Dollars per Tonne crude oil = 0.40 Dollars per Tonne fuel oil = 0.45 Dollars per Tonne naphtha = 0.47 Dollars per Tonne LPG = 0.52 Dollars per Tonne LNG ONE DOLLAR per BARREL = 17 Cents per MMBtu crude oil = 16 Cents per MMBtu fuel oil = 19 Cents per MMBtu naphtha = 22 Cents per MMBtu LPG (r) = 24 Cents per MMBtu LPG (p) = 26 Cents per MMBtu LNG ONE DOLLAR per TONNE = 2.4 Cents per MMBtu crude oil = 2.5 Cents per MMBtu fuel oil = 2.2 Cents per MMBtu naphtha = 2.1 Cents per MMBtu LPG = 1.9 Cents per MMBtu LNG ONE CENT per US gallon LPG = 10 CENTS per MMBtu Oil and Coal Equivalent ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 million tonnes Oil per Year per year = 1.1 mrd m3 gas (1.3 mrd Groningen) = 1.5 million tonnes coal = 815 000 tonnes LNG = 890 000 tonnes LPG = 0.04 Tcf gas (42 trillion Btu) per day = 115 million ft3 gas = 3 million m3 gas = 30 500 barrels LNG = 26 000 barrels LPG (r) = 28 300 barrels LPG (p) = 20 000 barrels oil 1 million tonnes Coal per Year per year = 0.7 mrd m3 gas (0.8 mrd Groningen) = 640 000 tonnes oil = 525 000 tonnes LNG = 580 000 tonnes LPG = 0.03 Tcf gas (27 trillion Btu) per day = 75 million ft3 gas = 2 million m3 gas = 19 700 barrels LNG = 16 800 barrels LPG (r) = 18 200 barrels LPG (p) = 12 900 barrels oil 10 000 barrels Oil per Day per year = 0.6 mrd m3 gas = 500 000 tonnes oil = 780 000 tonnes coal = 0.02 Tcf gas (21 trillion Btu) per day = 58 million ft3 gas = 1.5 million m3 gas --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Rich Gas = natural gas having a gross calorific value of 41,868 kJ/m3. This term is used particularly for the natural gas from the North Sea and from Algeria. Degree-days = the number of degree-days of a day is calculated on the basis of a reference temperature set by experience at 16.5 C; it gives the difference between that reference temperature and the daily mean temperature if the latter is the lower. The number of degree-days of a year is the sum of the degree-days registered for each day of that year. G-factor = invoicing factor representing the average monthly cost of natural gas at the Belgian border in francs per gigajoule. 1GJ 1Gcal 10-6 Btu 1toe 1kWh 1m3 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1GJ 1 0.239 0.948 0.024 277.778 23.884 1Gcal 4.186 1 3.967 0.1 1,163 100 10-6 Btu 1.055 0.252 1 0.025 293.1 25.2 1toe 41.855 10 39.671 1 11,626 1,000 1kWh 3.600 10-3 0.860 10-3 3.421 10-3 0.083 10-3 1 86.011 10-3 1m3 rich gas 0.042 0.010 0.040 0.001 11.626 1 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ gigajoule giga British ton oil kilowatt calorie thermal equivalent - hour unit ```